Installing Stuff Notes

The power of scripting frequently lies in using other programs.


Real Machines (e.g. Pis) or


You know this quite a bit already...


Usually ISOs
We've been dealing with general, but

Specialized Distributions

Very common and useful these days
Especially with Raspberry Pis
(We'll come back later, but Docker, and LXC can do these in "Containers"


- Text editors
- Games
- Web Servers
- anything, really.


When the USERS were also the ADMINS/DEVELOPERS

(Windows/Mac users, I'm guessing it felt like
"Buy the physical disc in a store"
"Download and hope for the best, as it litters your drive"

and then just jumped to APP STORES?

Again, the problem:

(this is a completely made up example)

E.g. you install Libreoffice Calc (like Excel)
and also
A TI-graphing calculator app

Which both use a "lib-math.."

Again the problem

And now you delete one of them.

Or they use different versions.

How do you deal with this?

App Stores

Nice right? Curated, rated, clean set of apps

That get rid of themselves when you remove them


Us Linux snobs...

We saw app stores, and were like

Oh, you mean like "package managers using repositories"

wait...y'all gotta PAY for the apps lol

A related problem: Configurations

Windows: e.g. .ini files, or dropdown menus with "preferences"

Linux: Dotfiles, which can litter your home drive

Another related problem: DEs/WMs

KDE, Gnome, Xfce and others use different "tools" to draw the windows..

..and sometimes they clobber each other and get all weird.

Package Managers (classic)

(the precursor to app stores)
Try to track and manage libraries et al

Package Managers - Debian Family

This is Ubuntu, Mint, Pop, MX LINUX

apt/ apt-get
(synaptic, which is a gui version)
(aptitude, which is similar)

Also, the less preferred "dpkg", used to install "debs"

Package Managers - Red Hat Family

Fedora, Red Hat


Package Managers - Arch Family

Arch, Manjaro


The occasional "Installer helper"

Like "Tasksel"
or a Direct Download Shell script
that's actually an installer..speaking of

Direct Downloads

Raw Binaries or Shell scripts

Downloaded installers

Use at your own risk (but never say never)

On Direct Downloads

Theoretically very dangerous
Practically? In Linux? Probably not so much.
Especially if:

Direct Download precautions

So yes, maybe
curl http:XXX | bash
isn't so evil.

Speaking of homework, Git

Git, like Linux, is exactly what you get when a genius does his own thing;

It's great, people use it, and other parties can build on top and centralize it.

(also, it might be a *tad* depressing when you realize that there are 1000x programmers)


Presently still a great resource.
Reasonably safe place to download and run code from "raw"
See also, Gitlab and other competitors.


(there is a LOT more to say about git.
we spend an entire class period on it in 5367)


Linux is beginning to adopt the bifurcation
for better or for worse

End User -Really easy

The really easy stuff
"Software Centers"

End User - Newer Package Managers

- Snap
- Flatpak
- AppImage

Generally, the benefit here is (supposed to be)
"software is always being worked on"

Snap and Flatpak

More or less, their own sandboxed "systems"

"Snap" requires "Ubuntu approval,"

Which is why people like it less.


Winning, I hope.

Things are weirdly named in it; but it's what the Steam Deck uses.


Lol, forget "libraries" etc.



A lot of the times, the above will work.
But, you're tinkering, so you may need to dig deeper.

ADMIN - Language Specific

If you're using cutting edge, you may need to know about the specific languages


Tends to not be too bad; you mostly just have to have your Java up to date
and run the Jar file
(disclaimer, the vast majority of my real life knowledge here is Minecraft)


Can be messy, of course.

There is node/npm


For such an otherwise clean language;
installing packages with it can be very confusing:
Mostly owing to two things:


  1. The shift from Python 2 to 3.
Major change that required rewrites.
(Usually a no-no, but probably worth it here.)


Resolving conflicting libraries and versions can be done
in a number of ways, all decent, but all different.

  1. Just install the thing on your system. If it's a singular system you're good
  2. Virtual Environments. Confusing, but useful
  3. If possible, Jupyter Notebooks et al.


Enter Docker.
Amazingly good idea that mostly works.


Put things in "Containers."
Not as heavy as entire VMs
But walled off from everything.

Why not just apps like the end users?

END USERS usually don't need "special configs"
or "opening things to the internet"


Very cool thing about docker is PORTABILITY.
Their metaphor is "everything in shipping containers"


Also, it's own ecosystem. Frequently you can be like "install directly"
or "use a docker container"

The latter usually makes complicated above stuff into

"docker run hello-world"

(with some more flags to point to folders and ports for the net.

Backlinks: FSU Courses:LIS5364:Previous Readings