Installing Stuff Notes

The power of scripting frequently lies in using other programs.

WHOLE "OS"


Real Machines (e.g. Pis) or


Virtualizations

You know this quite a bit already...

Distributions

Usually ISOs
We've been dealing with general, but

Specialized Distributions

Very common and useful these days
Especially with Raspberry Pis
(We'll come back later, but Docker, and LXC can do these in "Containers"

BITS OF SOFTWARE

- Text editors
- Games
- Web Servers
- anything, really.

IN THE BEGINNING

When the USERS were also the ADMINS/DEVELOPERS

(Windows/Mac users, I'm guessing it felt like
"Buy the physical disc in a store"
or
"Download and hope for the best, as it litters your drive"

and then just jumped to APP STORES?

Package Managers (classic)

(the precursor to app stores)
Try to track and manage libraries et al

Package Managers - Debian Family

This is Ubuntu, Mint, Pop etc.

apt/ apt-get
(aptitude, which is a gui version)

Also, the less preferred "dpkg", used to install "debs"

Package Managers - Red Hat Family

Fedora, Red Hat

RPM

Package Managers - Arch Family

Arch, Manjaro

pacman

The occasional "Installer helper"

Like "Tasksel"
or a Direct Download Shell script
that's actually an installer..speaking of

Direct Downloads


Raw Binaries or Shell scripts


Downloaded installers


Use at your own risk (but never say never)

On Direct Downloads

Theoretically very dangerous
Practically? In Linux? Probably not so much.
Especially if:

Direct Download precautions

So yes, maybe
curl http:XXX | bash
isn't so evil.

Speaking of homework, Git

Git, like Linux, is exactly what you get when a genius does his own thing;

It's great, people use it, and other parties can build on top and centralize it.

Github

Presently still a great resource.
Reasonably safe place to download and run code from "raw"
See also, Gitlab and other competitors.

Git

(there is a LOT more to say about git.
we spend an entire class period on it in 5367)


MODERN ERA

Linux is beginning to adopt the bifurcation
for better or for worse
of END USERS v. ADMIN/DEVELOPER

End User -Really easy

The really easy stuff
"Software Centers"

End User - Newer Package Managers

- Snap
- Flatpak
- AppImage

Generally, the benefit here is (supposed to be)
"software is always being worked on"

ADMIN

A lot of the times, the above will work.
But, you're tinkering, so you may need to dig deeper.

ADMIN - Language Specific

If you're using cutting edge, you may need to know about the specific languages

Java

Tends to not be too bad; you mostly just have to have your Java up to date
and run the Jar file
(disclaimer, the vast majority of my real life knowledge here is Minecraft)

Javascript

Can be messy, of course.

There is node/npm

Python

For such an otherwise clean language;
installing packages with it can be very confusing:
Mostly owing to two things:

Python

  1. The shift from Python 2 to 3.
Major change that required rewrites.
(Usually a no-no, but probably worth it here.)

Python

Resolving conflicting libraries and versions can be done
in a number of ways, all decent, but all different.

  1. Just install the thing on your system. If it's a singular system you're good
  2. Virtual Environments. Confusing, but useful
  3. If possible, Jupyter Notebooks et al.

CONTAINERS

Enter Docker.
Amazingly good idea that mostly works.

Docker

Put things in "Containers."
Not as heavy as entire VMs
But walled off from everything.

Why not just apps like the end users?

END USERS usually don't need "special configs"
or "opening things to the internet"


Docker

Very cool thing about docker is PORTABILITY.
Their metaphor is "everything in shipping containers"

Docker

Also, it's own ecosystem. Frequently you can be like "install directly"
or "use a docker container"

The latter usually makes complicated above stuff into

"docker run hello-world"

(with some more flags to point to folders and ports for the net.














Backlinks: FSU Courses:LIS5364